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To vie with someone. Jacob physically wrestled with a messenger of God during the night and emerged triumphant but injured (Gen 32:24; Gen 32:25; Hos 12:5). The idea was not restricted to physical conflict; see, e.g., Rachel’s struggle with Leah (Gen 30:8) and the statement that Christians wrestle against celestial spiritual forces (Eph 6:12).

Opposite: Stairway excavated at Tell es-Sa’idiyeh, a proposed site of biblical Zarethan. The stairway was probably roofed and led from the city on top to a water source at the bottom.